What Term Is Used For Multiple Effects From A Single Gene?

What Term Is Used For Multiple Effects From A Single Gene??

Pleiotropy describes the genetic effect of a single gene on multiple phenotypic traits. The underlying mechanism is genes that code for a product that is either used by various cells or has a cascade-like signaling function that affects various targets.

When a single gene has multiple downstream effects it is called?

4 Pleiotropy

Pleiotropy means that a single gene affects two or more characters. In the context of life history evolution pleiotropy means that a single gene affects the fitness of the organism at two or more ages.

What pleiotropy means?

Definition of pleiotropy

genetics. : the phenomenon of a single gene influencing two or more distinct phenotypic traits : the quality or state of being pleiotropic In genetics there’s a concept called pleiotropy which posits that a single gene can influence multiple traits. [

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What is it called when one gene affects the expression of another?

Epistasis is a form on non-Mendelian inheritance in which one gene is capable of interfering with expression of another. This is often found associated with gene pathways where the expression of one gene is directly dependent on the presence or absence of another gene product within the pathway.

What is the other name of pleiotropy?

Top 10 similar words or synonyms for pleiotropy

epistasis 0.721532. epistatic 0.656627. hypomorphic 0.620550. phenocopies 0.613860.

What does Hemizygous refer to?

Listen to pronunciation. (HEH-mee-ZY-gus) Describes an individual who has only one member of a chromosome pair or chromosome segment rather than the usual two. Hemizygosity is often used to describe X-linked genes in males who have only one X chromosome.

What is translation and transcription?

The process by which DNA is copied to RNA is called transcription and that by which RNA is used to produce proteins is called translation.

When a single gene exhibits multiple phenotypic expression?

Pleiotropy (from Greek πλείων pleion “more” and τρόπος tropos “way”) occurs when one gene influences two or more seemingly unrelated phenotypic traits. Such a gene that exhibits multiple phenotypic expression is called a pleiotropic gene.

Which describes the ability of a single gene to have multiple phenotypic effects?

The ability of a gene to show multiple phenotypic effects is called C) pleiotropy i.e. one gene showing many effects.

When a single gene locus has more than two possible alleles this is called?

Extensions of Mendel’s Ideas

The existence of more than one form of a particular phenotypic trait in a population is known as polymorphism. Polymorphism can derive from. multiple alleles at a single gene locus.

What is it called when a single gene controls multiple traits?

A pleiotropic gene is a single gene that controls more than one trait. … The term pleiotropy is derived from the Greek words pleio which means “many ” and tropic which means “affecting.” Genes that affect multiple apparently unrelated phenotypes are thus called pleiotropic genes (Figure 1).

What do we call to an individual with one dominant and one recessive allele?

For a recessive allele to produce a recessive phenotype the individual must have two copies one from each parent. An individual with one dominant and one recessive allele for a gene will have the dominant phenotype.

What is the meaning of reciprocal cross?

Reciprocal cross is a kind of crossing strategy which means to make crosses between a pair of parents (A and B) by using them in turn as female parent and male parent to obtain two reciprocal crosses of A × B and B × A (usually a cross is expressed in the way that the first parent is female and the second parent is …

What is multiple allele?

Multiple alleles refer to the occurrence of three or more than three alleles for a particular gene. Alleles are different or contrasting forms of a gene. For example for the gene encoding for height one allele can be for tallness whereas the other can be for dwarfness.

What is a pleiotropic cytokine?

Cytokine pleiotropy is the ability of a cytokine to exert many different types of responses often on different cell types whereas cytokine redundancy refers to the fact that many different cytokines can induce similar signals.

Who coined the term pleiotropy?

Pleiotropy is defined as the phenomenon in which a single locus affects two or more distinct phenotypic traits. The term was formally introduced into the literature by the German geneticist Ludwig Plate in 1910 100 years ago.

What does Holandric mean?

Definition of holandric

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: transmitted by or being a gene in the nonhomologous portion of the Y chromosome a holandric trait.

What is hemizygous mutation?

Hemizygous: Having only a single copy of a gene instead of the customary two copies. All the genes on the single X chromosome in the male are ‘hemizygous.

What is a hemizygous genotype?

Homozygous describes a genotype consisting of two identical alleles at a given locus heterozygous describes a genotype consisting of two different alleles at a locus hemizygous describes a genotype consisting of only a single copy of a particular gene in an otherwise diploid organism and nullizygous refers to an …

How are genes transcribed and translated?

During transcription the enzyme RNA polymerase (green) uses DNA as a template to produce a pre-mRNA transcript (pink). The pre-mRNA is processed to form a mature mRNA molecule that can be translated to build the protein molecule (polypeptide) encoded by the original gene.

What is translation in protein synthesis?

Translation is the process of translating the sequence of a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule to a sequence of amino acids during protein synthesis. The genetic code describes the relationship between the sequence of base pairs in a gene and the corresponding amino acid sequence that it encodes.

What is the difference between genetic transcription and translation?

Hint: Transcription is the process of copying a gene’s DNA sequence to make an RNA molecule and translation is the process in which proteins are synthesized after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell’s nucleus. … Translation synthesizes proteins from RNA copies.

What does the term pleiotropy mean quizlet?

Pleiotropy. Pleiotropy occurs when one gene influences multiple phenotypic traits. Consequently a mutation in a pleiotropic gene may have an effect on some or all traits simultaneously.

What is the term used for the genes which code for a pair of contrasting traits?

A pair of genes controlling a pair of contrasting characters is called Allele.

Which of the following is an example of genes with multiple phenotypic effects?

The gene having the ability to control expression of a number of characters and have multiple phenotypic effects is called pleiotropic gene. For example- in Drosophila the gene for wing size also affects the nature of balancers eye color fertility longevity etc.

What do we mean when we use the term monohybrid cross quizlet?

A monohybrid cross involves organisms that are heterozygous for one character. What do we mean when we use the term monohybrid cross? Traits are inherited in discrete units and are not the results of “blending traits” What was the most significant conclusion that Gregor Mendel drew from his experiments with pea plants …

What do you mean when we use the term monohybrid cross?

A monohybrid cross involves a single parent whereas a dihybrid cross involves two parents. A monohybrid cross produces a single progeny whereas a dihybrid cross produces two progeny. A dihybrid cross involves organisms that are heterozygous for two characters and a monohybrid cross involves only one.

When different alleles of a single gene have independent effects on the phenotype of an individual the alleles are said to be?

Mendel’s Law of Independent Assortment states the inheritance of one pair of factors ( genes ) is independent of the inheritance of the other pair. If the two alleles are identical the individual is called homozygous for the trait if the two alleles are different the individual is called heterozygous.

pleiotropy. when a single gene locus affects more than one trait this is called. multiple alleles.

When a single trait is affected by more than one gene locus this called quizlet?

A polygenic trait is one whose phenotype is influenced by more than one gene. Traits that display a continuous distribution such as height or skin color are polygenic.

What is the term for a gene where multiple alleles for a gene are dominant?

Multiple Allelism Pleiotropy and Epistasis

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Pleiotropy refers to the condition wherein more than one gene can have multiple effects on the phenotype. While multiple allelism involves only a single gene with many variants (referred to as multiple alleles) pleiotropy entails more than one gene that determines phenotype.

What is the meaning of genotypic?

(jĕn′ə-tīp′ jē′nə-) 1. The genetic makeup as distinguished from the physical appearance of an organism or a group of organisms. 2. The combination of alleles located on homologous chromosomes that determines a specific characteristic or trait.

What phenotype means?

The term “phenotype” refers to the observable physical properties of an organism these include the organism’s appearance development and behavior. An organism’s phenotype is determined by its genotype which is the set of genes the organism carries as well as by environmental influences upon these genes.

How do you say pleiotropic?

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Occasionally a single gene may express more than one effect. The phenomenon is called

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