What Is Deep Mining

What is the deep mining?

The exploitation of coal or mineral deposits by underground mining methods. ‘Deep’ is often interpreted as meaning 5 000 ft (1.5 km) or more where stresses are high enough to cause sloughing of development openings not to mention walls and faces in stopes.

Which is an example for deep mining?

There are about 47 coal mines in China at depth of 1000 m or deeper with an average mining depth of 1086 m. This is for example the case of: Zhangxiaolou Coal Mine (1100 m) in Xuzhou Zhaogezhuang Coal Mine (1159 m) in Tangshan and Mentougou Coal Mine (1008 m) in Beijing.

Which is the deep mining problem?

These challenges include the catastrophic events that are often met in deep mining engineering: rockbursts gas outbursts high in situ and redistributed stresses large deformation squeezing and creeping rocks and high temperature.

What are the 4 types of mining?

There are four main mining methods: underground open surface (pit) placer and in-situ mining.

What’s the deepest mine in the world?

Mponeng Gold Mine

List of deepest mines
Rank Name of mine Depth
1 Mponeng Gold Mine 4.0 km (2.5 mi)
2 TauTona Mine 3.9 km (2.4 mi)
3 Savuka Gold Mine 3.7 km (2.3 mi)
4 East Rand Mine 3.585 km (2.228 mi)

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What is the purpose of deep sea mining?

Deep-sea mining is the process of retrieving mineral deposits from the deep sea – the area of the ocean below 200 m. Depleting terrestrial deposits and rising demand for metals are stimulating interest in the deep sea with commercial mining imminent.

Who is the biggest mining company in the world?


List of largest mining companies by revenue
No. Company Headquarters
1 Glencore Switzerland United Kingdom
2 BHP Australia United Kingdom
3 Rio Tinto United Kingdom Australia
4 China Shenhua Energy China

Where in the world has the largest known coal reserves?

The top five countries with the largest proven coal reserves
  1. United States – 249 billion tonnes. …
  2. Russia – 162 billion tonnes. …
  3. Australia – 149 billion tonnes. …
  4. China – 142 billion tonnes. …
  5. India – 106 billion tonnes.

How is deep sea mining done?

Mining interests plan to use large robotic machines to excavate the ocean floor in a way that’s similar to strip-mining on land. The materials are pumped up to the ship while wastewater and debris are dumped into the ocean forming large sediment clouds underwater.

What is deep shaft mining?

Shaft mining or shaft sinking is excavating a vertical or near-vertical tunnel from the top down where there is initially no access to the bottom. … When the top of the excavation is the ground surface it is referred to as a shaft when the top of the excavation is underground it is called a winze or a sub-shaft.

What are the dangers of underground mining?

Underground mining has the potential for tunnel collapses and land subsidence (Betournay 2011). It involves large-scale movements of waste rock and vegetation similar to open pit mining. Additionally like most traditional forms of mining underground mining can release toxic compounds into the air and water.

What problems do miners face?

Mining can be a dangerous profession. The traditional occupational hazards such as coal dust inhalation damage to hearing due to the noise in a mine and chemical hazards still stand but the changing nature of mining has led to a raft of new issues.

What are six types of mining?

Here are the different types of mining for resources like minerals water and fossil fuels.
  • Strip Mining.
  • Open Pit Mining.
  • Mountaintop Removal.
  • Dredging.
  • Highwall Mining.

What are the 5 methods of mining?

There are five recognized types of surface mining each with specific variations depending on the minerals being extracted. These include strip mining open-pit mining mountaintop removal dredging and highwall mining.

What are the 3 types of mining methods?

Mining Methods
  • Open Cut. Open cut (or open pit) mining involves digging and/or drilling and blasting to remove the resource or ore for processing. …
  • Dredge mining. …
  • Shaft. …
  • Decline or tunnel. …
  • Block cave. …
  • Continuous Mining. …
  • Longwall Mining. …
  • Coal Seam Gas (CSG)

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How hot is it in a deep mine?

Because temperatures can reach up to 150°F in the mine at such depths an ice slurry must be pumped into Mponeng to maintain temperatures that can be withstood by humans.

How deep can humans mine?

Known as the Kola Superdeep Borehole the deepest hole ever dug reaches approximately 7.5 miles below the Earth’s surface (or 12 262 meters) a depth that took about 20 years to reach. The hole was intended to go “as deep as possible ” which researches expected to be around 9 miles (that’s ~14 500 meters).

Where is the biggest mine in the world?

The mine is the largest man-made excavation and deepest open-pit mine in the world which is considered to have produced more copper than any other mine in history – more than 19 million tons.

Bingham Canyon Mine.
Opened 1906
Company Rio Tinto Group
Bingham Canyon Open Pit Copper Mine

Is deep sea mining profitable?

This is the area of greatest commercial interest estimated to hold more nickel cobalt and manganese than all known terrestrial deposits combined. A recent MIT cost-benefit analysis found that mining these nodules would be profitable with annual revenues of up to US$2.2 billion a year.

What is the richest mineral of all?

1. Jadeite $3 million per carat. The most expensive mineral in the world is Jadeite coming in at a whopping $3 million per carat.

Where is sea deepest?

Mariana Trench
The Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean is the deepest location on Earth. According to the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) the United States has jurisdiction over the trench and its resources. Scientists use a variety of technologies to overcome the challenges of deep-sea exploration and explore the Trench.

Who is the richest gold miner?

Tony Beets holds the title for the richest miner on Gold Rush. Unlike fellow cast member Parker Schnabel Beets didn’t always have his heart set on the mining industry. In fact years before he was a star on the show Beets lived in Holland and milked cows for a living.

What is the oldest mining company?

TAKRAF GmbH – 1725. TAKRAF the world’s longest-running metals and mining company provides mining and materials handling products.

Who is the most famous miner?

Explorers and innovators: early mining’s famous miners
  • George Hearst. …
  • Richard Sleath. …
  • John Van Nostrand Dorr. …
  • Kate Rice. …
  • Herbert Hoover.

Which country has the cleanest coal?

Acknowledgement of Country

Australian coal is generally amongst the best quality coal in the world regarded highly for its energy content low impurity and its efficiency as a coking agent in the production of steel.

How many years of coal is left in the world?

about 133 years

World Coal Reserves

The world has proven reserves equivalent to 133.1 times its annual consumption. This means it has about 133 years of coal left (at current consumption levels and excluding unproven reserves).

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Which country has the best quality coal?

China is the global leader in coal production by an incredible margin producing 3 474 metric tonnes (mt) in 2018 rising by 2.9% for the second year running but down from its peak of 3 749mt in 2013. This is despite the countries public pledges to the Paris Climate Agreement in 2015.

Why deep sea mining is bad?

Besides noise pollution studies suggest that deep-sea mining will destroy habitats and marine life with sediment plumes chemical pollution and light pollution not only impacting the immediate vicinity but potentially harming migratory species and key fisheries.

What countries are deep sea mining?

Countries such as India Brazil Singapore Russia Germany Canada United Kingdom and the United States are all moving forward with exploration plans for deep-sea mining or DSM. The metals they are searching for include: iron manganese copper zinc lead nickel cadmium silver platinum rare earths and gold.

What companies are doing deep sea mining?

Past attendees:
  • ABS USA.
  • Nautilus Minerals Inc.
  • IHC Mining B.V.
  • Geomarine Ltd.
  • UK Seabed Resources.
  • Subsea Minerals Ltd.
  • De Beers Marine.
  • Neptune Minerals Inc.

What is the example of shaft mining?

Shaft mining is the process where miners dig straight down or almost straight down until they reach their desired depth. Then the mine begins to branch out in all directions. Miners will enter or exit a mine through a lift or elevator installed where the initial vertical tunnel was originally.

What is a Galloway mining?

The Galloway is a 160-ton work stage that has virtually every necessary piece of equipment embedded within its five decks: four pneumatically powered jumbo drilling machines two vertical shaft muckers concrete forms for the shaft liner and support tools for utilities.

What are examples of shafts?

The definition of a shaft is a long narrow handle or a long narrow part of something a sudden bolt of light or a sudden flash of some feeling. The long narrow handle of a golf club is an example of a shaft. A long narrow mine shaft or a vertical elevator shaft are both examples of a shaft.

Why is underground mining expensive?

Underground mining is more expensive because it’s more capital intensive. … Proper ventilation system is also needed to supply necessary oxygen to miners working underground and to dilute render harmless and carry away the hazardous components of mine air (including methane that is potentially explosive).

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